WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
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Health workforce in India: assessment of availability, production and distribution
Indrajit Hazarika
April-June 2013, 2(2):106-112
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122944  PMID:28612768
Background: India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, this shortfall impedes progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to assess health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in health-worker provision and estimate the impact of this maldistribution on key health outcomes in India. Materials and Methods: Health-workforce availability and production were assessed by use of year-end data for 2009 obtained from the Indian Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Inequalities in the distribution of doctors, dentists, nurses and midwives were estimated by use of the Gini coefficient and the relation between health-worker density and selected health outcomes was assessed by linear regression. Results: Inequalities in the availability of health workers exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of health personnel. Inequalities in the distribution of health workers are highest for doctors and dentists and have a significant effect on health outcomes. Conclusion: Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years, the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. As India seeks to achieve universal health coverage by 2020, the realization of this goal remains challenged by the current lack of availability and inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported health workers.
  16,139 1,876 19
Stigma related to HIV and AIDS as a barrier to accessing health care in Thailand: a review of recent literature
Sian Churcher
January-March 2013, 2(1):12-22
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115829  PMID:28612818
Background: Thailand has been recognized as a regional leader in its response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. However, low rates of voluntary testing, late entry into healthcare and delayed treatment continue to be major challenges. Stigma associated with HIV has been cited as a significant barrier preventing a successful and co-ordinated response. HIV-related stigma is known to exist among Thai communities. However, less is known about the attitudes of healthcare workers towards people living with HIV, and how this impacts health-seeking behaviours. This paper considers recent literature from Thailand (2007-2012), which discusses how HIV-related stigma affects health-seeking behaviour, as well as experiences of HIV-related stigma in healthcare settings. Materials and Methods: Information was collected from electronic databases and websites using the search terms 'HIV stigma healthcare'. Literature published in English, from 2007 onwards, discussing the relationship between HIV-related stigma and health-seeking behaviour, or HIV-related stigma in healthcare settings in Thailand was included in this review. Results: There is scarcity of information assessing the forms of stigmatizing attitudes known to exist within the Thai healthcare sector. Literature highlights that key affected populations feel most stigmatized against. Interactions and negative experiences in government healthcare settings have contributed to a reduced engagement around seeking healthcare. Discussion and Conclusions: More research is needed on HIV-related stigma in healthcare settings in Thailand. Evidence suggests that interventions at the policy, environmental and individual levels are required to address stigma and protect the health and rights of people living with HIV/AIDS.
  11,674 945 17
Choice of health-care facility after introduction of free essential health services in Nepal
Rajendra Karkee, Jhalka Kadariya
April-June 2013, 2(2):96-100
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122941  PMID:28612766
Background: Choice of health-care services depends on patients' characteristics and the features of health-care facilities available. In Nepal, a significant proportion of health care is provided through the private sector, despite the introduction of free essential health care for all citizens in 2008. We sought to determine whether people chose private or public facilities in the first instance for acute health problems. We also assessed the reasons for their choice. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done by use of a questionnaire administered to 400 household heads in Jhapa district, Nepal. Results: 272 (68%) respondents sought treatment from public health-care facilities in the first instance. On adjusted analysis, illiterate people were more likely to choose public facilities than people with higher secondary education (OR 5.47, P = 0.002). Similarly, lower-caste and religious-minority respondents were more likely to choose public facilities than disadvantaged janajati (OR 2.33, P = 0.01). Among respondents who used public facilities, 174 (64.0%) and 109 (40.0%) stated that that their choice was based on financial accessibility and physical accessibility, respectively. Among respondents who used private facilities, 65 (50.7%) and 54 (42.1%) said their choice was based on adequacy of resources/services and health-care delivery, respectively. Conclusion: A substantial portion of respondents used public health-care facilities in the first instance, mainly because of financial and physical accessibility rather than adequacy of resources or better health-care delivery. These results may indicate a positive impact of removal of user fees for public health-care facilities in Nepal, especially for impoverished people.
  8,934 818 2
Chronic disease management in the South-East Asia Region: a need to do more
Jayendra Sharma
April-June 2013, 2(2):79-82
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122935  PMID:28612763
Chronic diseases account for a substantial proportion of deaths in the South-East Asia Region, ranging from 34% in Timor-Leste to 79% in Maldives. Fuelled by the epidemiological shift towards noncommunicable diseases, the burden of chronic conditions is steadily increasing. Care structures for chronic diseases in most of these countries focus only on certain conditions and are often oriented towards episodic illnesses. An opportunity exists for holistic, country-driven applications of the World Health Organization Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions framework to improve quality of care for chronic conditions in the region.
  8,573 922 4
Monitoring medicines use to support national medicines policy development and implementation in the Asia Pacific region
Elizabeth E Roughead, Karma Lhazeen, Engko Socialine, Salmah Bahri, Byong Joo Park, Kathleen Holloway
April-June 2013, 2(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122946  PMID:28612769
Critical to the successful implementation of a national medicines strategy is evaluation of the policy and ongoing monitoring of medicine use. Methods for monitoring medicines use within countries vary depending on the country and its stage of medicines policy development and implementation. In this paper, we provide four case studies on monitoring medicines use to support national medicines policy development and implementation. Cases come from Bhutan, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Republic of Korea.
  8,120 449 6
Prevalence and predictors of hypertension among residents aged 20-59 years of a slum-resettlement colony in Delhi, India
Sanjeet Panesar, Sanjay Chaturvedi, NK Saini, Rajnish Avasthi, Abhishek Singh
April-June 2013, 2(2):83-87
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122937  PMID:28612764
Background: Slum-resettlement communities are increasingly adopting urban lifestyles. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and identify correlates of hypertension among residents aged 20-59 years of a slum-resettlement colony. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was done from 2010 to 2012 in NandNagri, a slum-resettlement area in east Delhi. 310 participants aged 20-59 years were enrolled through multistage systematic random sampling. Each study subject was interviewed and examined for raised blood pressure; data on risk factors including smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and salt consumption were also collected. Data were analysed by use of univariate and multivariate regression. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 17.4% and 35% participants were prehypertensive. On multiple logistic regression, age 40-49 years (P = 0.020) and 50-59 years (P = 0.012), clerical/professional occupation (P = 0.004), abnormal waist circumference (≥90 cm in males and ≥ 80 cm in females; P = 0.001), positive family history of hypertension in both parents (P = 0.013) and above-average daily salt intake (P = 0.000) were significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusions: These findings indicate that hypertension is a significant health problem in the study population. Many study participants diagnosed with prehypertension are at risk of developing hypertension, thus immediate public-health interventions are indicated.
  7,604 856 2
A decade of public health achievements in WHO's South-East Asia Region

April-June 2013, 2(2):128-128
  7,271 383 -
Risk factors for nonfatal drowning in children in rural Bangladesh: a community-based case-control study
Syed AHM Abdullah, Meerjady S Flora
April-June 2013, 2(2):88-95
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122939  PMID:28612765
Introduction: Most studies of drowning in Bangladeshi populations to date have described mortality and trends. We sought to identify associations between socioeconomic status and child-care practices and nonfatal drowning in rural Bangladeshi children. Materials and Methods: This community-based case-control study was conducted in rural children aged 1-5 years in Raiganj subdistrict of Bangladesh. 122 cases and 134 age-matched controls were recruited and their mothers were interviewed by use of a structured questionnaire. Univariate analyses and logistic regression were done to analyse the data. Results: Child nonfatal drowning was significantly associated with mothers: With low educational status (P < 0.001), of younger age (P < 0.005), of single status (P < 0.001) and with more than three children (P < 0.001). Nonfatal drowning was 12 and five times more likely in children of illiterate mothers than in children of mothers with academic knowledge equivalent to sixth to tenth grade (OR [95% CI] 0.08 [0.02-0.26]) and above tenth grade (OR [95% CI] 0.21 [0.04-0.95]) (P < 0.001), respectively. Low socioeconomic status, indicated by lower family expenditure (P < 0.001) and no house (P < 0.05; OR [95% CI] 0.58 [0.17-0.99]), were found to be risk factors for childhood nonfatal drowning. Improved child care, as measured by a child-care index, was associated with significantly lower non-fatal drowning (P < 0.001). Child care improved with higher educational attainment of mothers (P < 0.005) and increased socioeconomic status. Nonfatal drowning was more common when the main caregiver was not the mother (P < 0.001). Forward likelihood ratio logistic regression indicated mothers' lower educational status as the best predictor of nonfatal drowning. Conclusion: Better child care and prevention of nonfatal drowning might be ensured through increasing mothers' educational attainment and improvements in socioeconomic status.
  6,665 611 1
Lessons from a decade of emerging diseases: towards regional public health security
Richard Brown
April-June 2013, 2(2):77-78
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122933  PMID:28612762
  6,548 672 -
The burden of iron-deficiency anaemia among women in India: how have iron and folic acid interventions fared?
Rajesh Kumar Rai, Wafaie W Fawzi, Anamitra Barik, Abhijit Chowdhury
April 2018, 7(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.228423  PMID:29582845
Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) among women in India is a problem of major public health significance. Using data from three waves of the National Family Health Survey, this article discusses the burden of and trend in IDA among women in India, and discusses the level of iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation and its potential role in reducing the burden of IDA. Between 2005–2006 and 2015–2016, IDA in India decreased by only 3.5 percentage points (from 56.5% in 2005–2006 to 53.0% in 2015–2016) for women aged 15–49 years. However, during the same period, of 27 states compared, IDA increased in eight: Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh; furthermore, some of these (e.g. Kerala) are states that rank among the highest on the state Human Development Index but had failed to contain the burden of IDA. Although there is a standard guideline for IFA supplementation in place, the IFA intervention appears to be ineffective in reducing the burden of IDA in India (nationally only 30.3 % of mothers consumed IFA for 100 days or more when they were pregnant), probably due to irregular consumption of IFA where the provision of screening under the National Iron+ Initiative scheme appears to be unsuccessful. To strengthen the IFA intervention and its uptake, a concerted effort of community-level health workers (accredited social health activists, auxiliary nurse midwives and anganwadi workers) is urgently needed. In addition, food-based strategies (dietary diversification and food fortification), food supplementation and improvement of health services are required to reduce the burden of anaemia among women in India.
  5,910 1,006 1
Annual risk of tuberculosis infection in Sri Lanka: a low prevalent country with a high BCG vaccination coverage in the South-East Asia Region
Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe, Paba Palihawadana, Sunil De Alwis, Sudath Samaraweera
January-March 2013, 2(1):34-40
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115835  PMID:28612821
Introduction: Despite its simplicity, efficiency and reliability, Sri Lanka has not used the Annual Risk of Tuberculosis Infection (ARTI) to assess the prevalence and efficiency of tuberculosis (TB) control. Hence, a national tuberculin survey was conducted to estimate the ARTI. Materials and Methods: A school-based, cross-sectional tuberculin survey of 4352 children aged 10 years irrespective of their BCG vaccination or scar status was conducted. The sample was selected from urban, rural and estate strata using two-stage cluster sampling technique. In the first stage, sectors representing three strata were selected and, in the second stage, participants were selected from 120 clusters. Using the mode of the tuberculin reaction sizes (15 mm) and the mirror-image technique, the prevalence and the ARTI were estimated. Results: The prevalence of TB estimated for urban, rural and estate sectors were 13.9%, 2.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The national estimate of the prevalence of TB was 4.2% (95% CI = 1.7-7.2%). ARTI for the urban, rural and estate sectors were 1.4%, 0.2% and 0.2%, respectively, and the national estimate was 0.4% (95% CI = 0.2-0.7%). The estimated annual burden of newly infected or re-infected TB cases with the potential of developing into the active disease (400/100 000 population) was nearly 10-fold higher than the national new case detection rate (48/100 000 population). Conclusion: The national estimate of ARTI was lower than the estimates for many developing countries. The high-estimated risk for the urban sector reflected the need for intensified, sector-specific focus on TB control activities. This underscores the need to strengthen case detection. Repeat surveys are essential to determine the annual decline rate of infection.
  5,824 471 3
Changing epidemiology of dengue in South-East Asia
Rajesh Bhatia, Aditya P Dash, Temmy Sunyoto
January-March 2013, 2(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115830  PMID:28612819
The burden of dengue and its potential threat to global health are now globally recognized, with 2.5 billion people at risk worldwide. The pathogenesis of severe dengue is particularly intriguing with the involvement of different immune factors. Also, the epidemiology of dengue in South-East Asia is undergoing a change in the human host, the dengue virus and the vector bionomics. Shift in affected age groups, sex differences and expansion to rural areas are evident, while the virulence and genotype of the virus determine the severity and time interval between sequential infections. The Aedes mosquito, a potent and adaptive vector, has evolved in longevity and survival, affected by seasonality and climate variability, socio-cultural and economic factors of human habitation and development. This review provides insights into the changing epidemiology and its factors in South-East Asia, one of the most important epicentres of dengue in the world, highlighting the major factors influencing these rapid changes. Addressing the changes may help mitigate the challenges in the current dengue control and prevention efforts.
  5,103 1,069 17
Haemophilus influenza type b disease and vaccination in India: knowledge, attitude and practices of paediatricians
Vipin M Vashishtha, Vishal Dogra, Panna Choudhury, Naveen Thacker, Sailesh G Gupta, Satish K Gupta
April-June 2013, 2(2):101-105
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122942  PMID:28612767
Background: Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) causes significant morbidity and mortality among young children in India. Hib vaccines are safe and efficacious; nevertheless, their introduction to India's national immunization programme has been hindered by resistance from certain sectors of academia and civil society. We aimed to ascertain the attitudes and perceptions of Indian paediatricians towards Hib disease and vaccination. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practices on Hib and vaccines was undertaken among 1000 Indian paediatricians who attended 49 th National Conference of Indian Academy of Pediatrics in 2012 through use of a 21-point questionnaire. Results: 927 (93%) paediatricians completed the survey. 643 (69%) responded that Hib is a common disease in India. 788 (85%) reported prescribing Hib vaccine to their patients and 453 (49%) had done so for the past 5-15 years. Hib vaccine was used in combination with other vaccines by 814 (88%) of the participants. 764 (82%) respondents thought Hib vaccine effective while 750 (81%) thought it to be safe. Fever, pain and redness were the most frequently reported post vaccination side-effects. 445 (48%) paediatricians ranked universal use of Hib vaccine in the national immunization programme as the most important strategy to prevent and control Hib disease in India. Conclusion: The excellent profile as reported by a large number of paediatricians from throughout India further strengthens evidence to support expanded use of currently available Hib vaccines. These findings should encourage the Government of India to initiate mass use of this vaccine nationwide.
  5,827 317 2
Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV in India through service integration: lessons from Mysore District, Karnataka
KS Nair, L. L. K. Piang, VK Tiwari, Sherin Raj, Deoki Nandan
April-June 2013, 2(2):121-127
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122949  PMID:28612771
Meeting the needs of HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring is critical to India's political and financial commitment to achieving universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. This review of the strategy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV in Mysore district, Karnataka, highlights the need to integrate prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) and reproductive and child health (RCH) services. All key officials who were involved in the integration of services at the state and district levels were interviewed by use of semistructured protocols. Policy documents and guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Family Welfare and Karnataka State AIDS Prevention Society were reviewed, as were records and official orders issued by the office of District Health and Family Welfare Officer and District HIV/AIDS Programme Office, Mysore. Routine data were also collected from all health facilities. This review found that 4.5 years of PPTCT-RCH integration resulted not only in a rise in antenatal registrations but also in almost all pregnant women counselled during antenatal care undergoing HIV tests. Based on the findings, we propose recommendations for successful replication of this strategy. Integration of PPTCT services with RCH should take place at all levels − policy, administration, facility and community. The increased demand for HIV counselling and testing resulting from service integration must be met by skilled human resources, sufficient facilities and adequate funds at the facility level.
  5,340 296 2
National policies for safety of medicines in the Asia Pacific region
Socorro Escalante, John McEwen
April-June 2013, 2(2):118-120
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.122947  PMID:28612770
National medicines policies can aid the safe use of medicines by ensuring availability of quality products, appropriate information for prescribers and consumers, strengthening the national medicines regulatory capacity and improving access to expert advice and authoritative laboratory testing. We report the findings of a workshop on medicines safety, which focused on the Asia Pacific region. Participants noted that external support is needed for resource-poor countries and that national medicines policies should include surveillance on problems with medicines, rather than the more limited monitoring of adverse drug reactions. The latter approach may be the only sensible option in countries in the Asia Pacific with very small populations.
  5,257 271 1
Influencing factors for household water quality improvement in reducing diarrhoea in resource-limited areas
Thant Zin, Kamarudin D Mudin, Than Myint, Daw K. S. Naing, Tracy Sein, BS Shamsul
January-March 2013, 2(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115828  PMID:28612817
Background and Objectives: Water and sanitation are major public health issues exacerbated by rapid population growth, limited resources, disasters and environmental depletion. This study was undertaken to study the influencing factors for household water quality improvement for reducing diarrhoea in resource-limited areas. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from articles and reviews from relevant randomized controlled trials, new articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses from PubMed, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and WELL Resource Centre For Water, Sanitation And Environmental Health. Discussion: Water quality on diarrhoea prevention could be affected by contamination during storage, collection and even at point-of-use. Point-of-use water treatment (household-based) is the most cost-effective method for prevention of diarrhoea. Chemical disinfection, filtration, thermal disinfection, solar disinfection and flocculation and disinfection are five most promising household water treatment methodologies for resource-limited areas. Conclusion: Promoting household water treatment is most essential for preventing diarrhoeal disease. In addition, the water should be of acceptable taste, appropriate for emergency and non-emergency use.
  4,082 859 7
Growth parameters at birth of babies born in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka and factors influencing them
Priyantha J Perera, Nayomi Ranathunga, Meranthi P Fernando, Tania D Warnakulasuriya, Rajitha A Wickremasinghe
January-March 2013, 2(1):57-62
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115845  PMID:28612825
Background: Growth parameters at birth are important for clinical decision-making. In Sri Lanka, the data from the World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) are used to interpret these measurements. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2010 in hospitals of Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. The weight, length and head circumference of all normal-term babies born in the Gampaha district during this period were measured within 8 h of birth using standard techniques. Measurements were taken by medical graduates trained and supervised by a consultant paediatrician. Socio-demographic data were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the 2215 babies recruited, 1127 were males. The mean birth weight, mean length and mean head circumference at birth were 2.92 kg, 49.1 and 33.6 cm, respectively. Boys weighed and measured more than girls in all parameters, but the differences were not statistically significant. Growth parameters of babies included in this study deviated from that in the MGRS data. Mean values of MGRS data were between 75th and 90th centiles of this study population. Birth order, family income and maternal education were significantly (P < 0.01) associated with growth parameters. Contrary to common belief, growth parameters continued to increase progressively up to 41 weeks. Maternal age less than 20 years or more than 35 years was negatively associated with birth weight (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Growth parameters of new-born babies deviated significantly from the values of the MGRS data. Growth characteristics of one population may not be applicable to another population due to variations in maternal, genetic and socio-economic factors. Using growth charts not applicable to a population will result in wrong interpretations.
  4,632 306 1
Suicide and depression in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region: A systematic review
Helal Uddin Ahmed, Mohammad Didar Hossain, Afzal Aftab, Tanjir Rashid Soron, Mohammad Tariqul Alam, Md Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Aftab Uddin
April 2017, 6(1):60-66
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.206167  PMID:28597861
Background Depression is the most common comorbid psychiatric disorder in people who die by suicide and 39% of global suicides occur in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, for countries of this region, first the prevalence of depression among people who (i) die by, or (ii) attempt, suicide, and second, the proportion of people with depression who attempt or die by suicide. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched, together with five available national databases, for quantitative research papers published in English between 1956 and 4 September 2016 from the 11 countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region. Results The 19 articles that met the predefined eligibility criteria were from five countries: Bangladesh (1), India (12), Indonesia (1), Sri Lanka (3) and Thailand (2); no eligible papers from the remaining countries of the region were retrieved. Eight studies, from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, reported the prevalence of depression among people who had died by suicide. The study settings varied, as did the proportion of depression recorded (6.9–51.7%), and the study sample sizes ranged from 27 to 372. Eight studies from India and one from Sri Lanka investigated depression among people who had attempted suicide. Using a range of screening and diagnostic tools, the reported prevalence of depression ranged between 22.0% and 59.7%. The study sample sizes ranged from 56 to 949. Only two articles were found, both from Thailand, that reported on suicide in people with depression. Conclusion Despite the high burden of mortality of suicide in the WHO South-East Asia Region, evidence on the relation between suicide and depression is scarce. There is a need to understand this phenomenon better, in order to inform suicide-prevention strategies in the region.
  4,215 716 3
Integration of leprosy services into the General Health Service in Sri Lanka: overcoming challenges to implementation in a remote district
Thushanthi S Wijesinghe, Pushpa Ranjan Wijesinghe
January-March 2013, 2(1):63-68
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115846  PMID:28612826
Sri Lanka took a policy decision to integrate leprosy services into the general health services (GHS) in 1999. This paper aims to summarize the emergence of new, specific challenges and how they were overcome during the integration of leprosy services to the GHS in a remote, leprosy endemic district in Sri Lanka. In this article, the regional epidemiologist as the team leader describes the principles used for transition to an effective integrated model of leprosy services from a centralized leprosy control model in the district. In addition, rationale for integration is viewed from the epidemiological and operational perspectives. National and district leprosy epidemiological data from secondary sources are also reviewed for corroborating the effectiveness of integration. Challenges surfaced were mainly related to the transfer of ownership of the programme, selection of appropriate service providing institutions easily accessible to clients, sustainability of leprosy services at the GHS, ensuring participation of all stakeholders in capacity building programmes and co-ordination of patient care in the absence of a dermatologist in the district. An empowered district team leader with specified roles and responsibilities, his sound technical and managerial know how and ability to translate 'team work' concept to practice were found to be essential for successful implementation of integration. Decision-making powers at the district level and flexibility to introduce new, area-specific changes to the centrally prepared core activities of integration were also vital to overcome locally surfaced challenges.
  4,254 266 1
A review of Japanese encephalitis in Uttar Pradesh, India
Roop Kumari, Pyare L Joshi
October-December 2012, 1(4):374-395
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.207040  PMID:28615603
Background: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major public health problem in India. When the first case was reported in 1955, the disease was restricted to south India. The disease spread to north India in 1978 from where extensive and recurrent outbreaks of JE have been reported ever since. An attempt has been made to review the epidemiology of JE over the past 30 years and suggestions made for its prevention and control. Methods: An epidemiological profile of JE (1978–2009) has been compiled and analysed to understand the trend and status of the disease. Results: In India, while 24 states are endemic for JE, Uttar Pradesh contributed more than 75% of cases during the recent past. Over the years, the seasonal trend has changed and the epidemic peak of the disease has advanced by one month. Conclusion: JE is closely associated with the pattern of precipitation, flooding and rice production systems. Analysis of trends and influencing factors will help in designing suitable strategies for the prevention and control of JE in the country. Continuous monitoring of vector populations and JE virus infection rates in vector mosquitoes will help in predicting an outbreak and in taking effective intervention measures.
  3,952 392 12
Current status of master of public health programmes in India: a scoping review
Ritika Tiwari, Himanshu Negandhi, Sanjay Zodpey
April 2018, 7(1):29-35
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.228425  PMID:29582847
There is a recognized need to improve training in public health in India. Currently, several Indian institutions and universities offer the Master of Public Health (MPH) programme. However, in the absence of any formal body or council for regulating public health education in the country, there is limited information available on these programmes. This scoping review was therefore undertaken to review the current status of MPH programmes in India. Information on MPH programmes was obtained using a two-step process. First, a list of all institutions offering MPH programmes in India was compiled by use of an internet and literature search. Second, detailed information on each programme was collected via an internet and literature search and through direct contact with the institutions and recognized experts in public health education. Between 1997 and 2016–2017, the number of institutions offering MPH programmes increased from 2 to 44. The eligibility criteria for the MPH programmes are variable. All programmes include some field experience. The ratio of faculty number to students enrolled ranged from 1:0.1 to 1:42. In the 2016–2017 academic year, 1190 places were being offered on MPH programmes but only 704 students were enrolled. MPH programmes being offered in India have witnessed a rapid expansion in the past two decades. This growth in supply of public health graduates is not yet matched by an increased demand. Despite the recognized need to strengthen the public health workforce in India, there is no clearly defined career pathway for MPH graduates in the national public health infrastructure. Institutions and public health bodies must collaborate to design and deliver MPH programmes to overcome the shortage of public health professionals, such that the development goals for India might be met.
  3,910 331 2
Promoting tobacco cessation by integrating 'brief advice' in tuberculosis control programme
Jagdish Kaur, Kuldeep S Sachdeva, Bhavesh Modi, Dinesh C Jain, Lakhbir S Chauhan, Paresh Dave, Rana J Singh, Nevin Wilson
January-March 2013, 2(1):28-33
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115833  PMID:28612820
Background: There is an enormous health burden caused by the co-prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and tobacco use in India. This intervention study was undertaken in district Vadodara, Gujarat, India to promote tobacco cessation by integrating 'brief advice' for tobacco cessation in TB patients who were tobacco users and registered for treatment under TB control programme, based on the tested strategies advocated by World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (The Union). Materials and Methods: Brief advice for tobacco cessation based on five A's, advocated by the WHO and the UNION was incorporated into the on-going TB Control programme in India in the year 2010. The tools were developed for education, training and capturing data. All the registered TB patients receiving directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) who used tobacco in any form were offered brief advice during routine interaction for treatment. Results: A total of 46.3% of TB patients, predominantly males (89.6% males and 10.3% females) were current users of tobacco; 39.1% used smokeless tobacco, 35.9% were smokers and 25% were dual users, that is, smoked as well as used smokeless tobacco. At the end of treatment, of the 67.3% patients who were offered brief advice, quit tobacco use, 18.2% re-lapsed while 14.5% were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: A significant numbers of TB patients use tobacco with adverse impact on TB control programmes. Our study shows that it is feasible to introduce 'brief advice' strategy as a cost effective intervention for tobacco cessation among TB patients with careful monitoring.
  3,426 452 8
Threat of HIV/AIDS in children: social, education and health consequences among HIV orphans and vulnerable children in Myanmar
Myo Myo Mon, Saw Saw, Yin Thet Nu-Oo, Khin Ohnmar San, Wai Wai Myint, San San Aye, Pyone Thuzar Nge
January-March 2013, 2(1):41-46
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115837  PMID:28612822
Background: There is very limited information available on HIV related orphans and vulnerable children (HIV-OVC) in Myanmar. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify and compare the social, education and health consequences among HIV-OVC and children from the families not related to HIV in the same neighbourhoods (neighbouring children). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative survey was carried out in three geographical locations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with guardians and children using a pretested structured questionnaire including Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for behavioural problems. Outcome measures were compared using Chi-squared test or 't' test or 'Rank-sum' test. Results: A total of 300 HIV-OVC and 300 neighbouring children were included. A greater number of HIV-OVC than their neighbouring children have experienced family displacement from their original homes (27% and 1%), child/sibling displacement (20% and 2.7%) and family dispersion (20.3% and 1.3%) (P < 0.001). More guardians of HIV-OVC reported that the disease affected their children's education (28.2% and 16.3%; P < 0.05). Fifteen per cent of HIV-OVC and 10.5% of neighbouring children had to work for their families (P < 0.05). Psychological condition was assessed on emotional, conduct, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship and prosocial behaviour. A greater number of HIV-OVC were noted in the abnormal category with regard to hyperactivity and prosocial behaviours (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Higher incidence of social and psychological consequences among HIV-OVC call for more community support programmes and creation of job opportunities to minimize social impact in the affected families. Future programmes should focus on counselling of HIV-OVC and providing psychological support.
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Assessing compliance to smoke-free legislation: results of a sub-national survey in Himachal Pradesh, India
Ravinder Kumar, Gopal Chauhan, Srinath Satyanarayana, Pranay Lal, Rana J Singh, Nevin C Wilson
January-March 2013, 2(1):52-56
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115843  PMID:28612824
Introduction: Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is a serious public health concern. The Indian smoke-free legislation 'Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules, 2008' prohibits smoking in public places, including workplaces. Objective: To measure the status of compliance to legal provisions that protects the public against harms of SHS exposure, identifies the potential areas of violations and informs policy makers for strengthening enforcement measures. Design: A cross-sectional survey in 1401 public places across 11 district headquarters in Himachal Pradesh, India, using a compliance guide developed by partners of the Bloomberg initiatives to reduce tobacco use. Results: In 1401 public places across 11 district headquarters, 42.8% public places had signage; in 84.2% public places, no smoking was observed and in 83.7%, there was absence of smoking accessories such as ashtray, matchbox and lighter . Tobacco litter like cigarette butts was absent in 64.7% of the public places. Overall, at the state level, there was more than 80% compliance on at least three of the five indicators. Among all categories of public places, educational institutions and offices demonstrated highest compliance, whereas most frequently visited public places, eateries and accommodation facilities had least compliance. Conclusions: The compliance to 'Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules, 2008' was variable in various district headquarters of Himachal Pradesh. This study identified the potential areas of violations that need attention from enforcement agencies and policymakers.
  3,290 386 7
Spiritual health, the fourth dimension: a public health perspective
Neera Dhar, SK Chaturvedi, Deoki Nandan
January-March 2013, 2(1):3-5
DOI:10.4103/2224-3151.115826  PMID:28612816
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